robot 英 [ˈrəubɔt] Mei [ˈrobət] n. 机器人；遥控Zhuang置；自动机；机械呆板的人 机器人； 罗Bo特； 机扑； 自动机 复数：robots Ming词 n. 1.机器人 Science fiction stories often mention robots that can talk. Ke幻小说常提到会说话的机器人。 She worked like a robot. Ta工作起来如同一个机器人。 2.遥控装置；Zi动机，自动控制装置 3.机械呆板的人
外文翻译 专业工业工程 Xue生姓名钱晓光 班级BD机制082 Xue号0820101205 指导教师邱亚兰 Wai文资料出处:Applied Mathematics and Computation 185 (2007) 1149–1159 Fu件: 1.外文资料翻译译文 2.外Wen原文 灵活的双臂空间机器人捕捉物体的控Zhi动力学 译者:钱晓光 文摘:在本Wen中,我们提出有效载荷的影响,来控制一个双臂空Jian机器人灵活的获取一个物体。该拉格朗日公式动力Xue模型推导出了机器人系统原理。源自初始条件的动Li学模型模拟了整个系统的获取过程。一个PD控制Qi设计,其目的是为了稳定机器人来捕捉对象,动态Mo拟执行例子: 例:1.机器人系统不受控Zhi发生撞击,仿真结果表明影响效果。2.空间机器Ren捕获物体的成功是伟大的。仿真结果表明,该机器Ren关节角和机械手的迅速程度已经达到稳定。 Guan键词:柔性臂;空间机器人;冲击;动力学;PDKong制方案:圆柱型机器人;技能训练 1.介Shao 空间机器人将成为人类未来在太空检验、Zhuang配和检索故障等日常工作的主要元素。空间机器人Man足宇航员额外的活动,对这些来说是很有价值的。Ran而,人类生活配套设施的成本和时间对航员是有限Zhi的,高度风险使空间机器人成为宇航员助手的选择。Zeng加设备的流动性, 自由飞行系统中一个或多个臂An装在一艘装有推进器里,然而,扩展推进器的使用Que得到了极大的限制。一个自由浮动的操作模式能增Jia系统的可操作性。有很多的研究成果对刚性臂空间Ji器人做了研究。考虑到空间机器人以下的特点:轻Zhi量、长臂、重载荷、灵活、有效性等,切应考虑到Liang好的控制精度和性能。与此同时,也存在着许多研Jiu动态建模和单臂空间机器人灵活控制的成果。作者Miao述了碰撞动力学建模方案的空间机器人和研究了多Shou臂灵活空间机器人。吴中书使用假设模态方法描述Liao弹性变形,建立了动态模型,研究了拉格朗日公式He仿真的柔性双臂空间机械臂。由两个特定操作阶段:Ying响阶段和撞击阶段。影响阶段确定了初始条件的对Xiang。在影响阶段,使空间机器人和对象模型做了对比,Chong击可能损坏机器人的内部链接。一般来说, 空间Ji器人的相对速度和目标之间的对比是重点。然而,Zai实践中难以实现这一方案。因此, 当一个空间机Qi人撷取一个对象,影响始终是存在的。到目前为止,Chong击问https://www.wanmeila.com/question/c3061a356190786454.html题的讨论,主要是关于机器人地面固定,焦点Chong动的力产生的接触点。然而,分析空间机器人的冲Ji动力学是很复杂的,因为存在自由浮动的动力学和Dong态动力学和机械手的运动的耦合效应。 本Wen的目的是探讨物体的捕获轨道与特定的速度之间的Dong态稳定性,在第二节, 采用拉格朗日公式Dong态的模型推导了空间机器人的动态模型。此外,机Qi人的动力系统都源自冲击模型。控制器的设计呈现Zai第3节。。 2.动力学模型 2.1. Dong力学模型柔性双臂空间机器人 在本节中,Cai用拉格朗日公式导出了该机器人系统的动力方程。Gai系统的运作相对时间长度较短,因此,轨道动力学De影响被忽略了。图1显示了平面柔性双臂空间机器Ren的运动,描述了一个惯性参照系 (x,y,z)。Kong间机器人系统包括一个圆柱中心和两个对称的机械Shou,分别链接1(筒形底座),连接2,连接3、链Jie4、链接5。其中链接3和链接5配合较灵活。让i = 1,2,……、5Zhe些环节的长度构成圆柱半径。 柔性连接用Dan性位移假设方法来描述 1 ()()()(),3,5n ix ij ij i i j u x q t x Q t i ϕ φ== ==∑ (1) 12()(,,)i i i in x φϕϕϕ= (2) 12()(,,)T i i i in t q q q φ= (3) i(t)Shi广义坐标矢量模式,i(x)是向量模式形函数。Gai系统采用动态模拟振型方式。 111234535(,,,,,,,,)T T T p x y Q Q θθθθθ= (4) Tong过拉格朗日公式能获得了相应的动能、势能。一套Dong力方程中获得的形式: Mp C Kp u ++= 。 (5) M Shi惯性质量,其中矩阵是对称的,C 是向量离心力,n Shi向量的广义动力,K 是刚度矩阵。 35(0,,)T K diag K K = (6) 11 1 1,3,50l T l i i i l K E I dx i φ φ= =⎰ (7) Xiang量的广力: 1234511(,,,,,,,,)T Q X y n n u f f N N N N N O Q ⨯⨯= (8) Tu1 .坐标系统的一个平面柔性双臂空间机器人 2.2. Chu始条件的动态模拟研究 有一个假设的碰撞Mo型中。系统保持相同的时间,虽然广义速度变化,Dan机器人系统的影响方程式和对象系统表达形态是相Si的。因此,我们可以写 1T M p C K p u J f ++=+ (9) He 00001T m c J F ψ+=- (10) Mo Shi广义坐标的广义质量矩阵对象、矢量包含了科氏和Li心的力量,结合两种运动方程(九)、(十),影Xiang力量的表现都是可以避免的,从以下公式可以看出: 0000 ()()T T M p C K p u J j M C ++=-+ψ+ (11) Qi次,结合上述方程,在此期间产生的影响,我们得Dao 00000()()(())0 000 T T T T t t t t t t t T M pd C K p d J j M d u J j C d + +=-+ψ+-+⎰⎰⎰⎰ (12) Jia设广义坐标系统被固定在这个时期,虽然他们的利Lv可能会改变。可以这样说 000 1(),,(),,,,t O p O p p εε =ψ=ψψ (13) Suo以,由结果整合(12)可以写成 00()()()0T T f i of io M p p J J M -++ψ-ψ= (14) Yin此 00f Jpf J =ψ (15) Dui象的广义速度可以用机器人术语表示 1000 ()T T of f J J J Jp -ψ= (16) Dai替(17)和(15)得到的结果在(15)下进Xing 1f p G H -= 和00()T T oi H M J J M =++ψ 。 (17) Yi旦最初的速度已经确定,评估可以依据(18),Ke以解决(17)的终极价值。(18)和(17)Shi用来作为初始速度动态仿真来模拟系统的。 2.3.Kong间机器人的动态模型捕捉到的对象 撞击会Jie合动力学机器人的模型方程,即下列方程 00 J Jp ψ= (18) Tong过(17),我们能得到 11100000000000 ()()(())T T T T T T J J J Jp J J J J J J J J J p ---ψ=+- (19) Cong(12)的到的结果在(10)下进行 1 11000000000000 001() )(())T T T T T T T M J J J Jp M J J J J J J J J J p C J f ---+-+=- (20) Yi下将结合(23)、(9)获得 M p C Kp U ''++= (21) 1100000000()()T T T T M M J J J J M J J J J --'=+ (22) He 111000000000000000()()(())()T T T T T T T T C C J J J J M J J J J J J J J J p J J C ---'=+-++ (23) Zai上述的方程式中,M 是质量矩阵。向量C 包含Liao科氏、离心力。 其中(22)是机器人的动力学Mo型。 3.撞击控制器的设计 在这部分,Mu的是为了稳定整个系统。用的是控制的方案。该控Zhi方法有时被称为反馈控制。目前,主动旋转控制及Dan性坐标还在实验阶段,没有被用于实际。在本节中,Que定他们的振幅可以通过从感测器的读数估出。这使De更方便划分仿真和控制结果,得到下面的表格。 12()0a a a ad p D p D p p ++-= (24) Zhuan矩法的PD 控制设计, 其书面形式 12ˆˆ(())a a ad a U M D p D p p C =-+-+ (25) 2 111 2 12222 333322,2D D ωζωζωωωζω=⎛ ⎫⎛⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪= ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎝ ⎭ ⎪⎝ ⎭ (26) Cong(29)到结束我们能得到 12()0a a a ad p D p D p p ++-= (27) Guan系2 2 2 0 关系3 10 10 1000 Guan系4 2 2 0 关系5 10 10 1000 Biao2 柔性双臂空间机器人和对象系统 项Mu广义坐标广义速度 质量0 0 关Xi2 15 0.2 关系3 38.14 0.1 Guan系4 -15 -0.1 关系5 -38.14 -0.05 https://www.wanmeila.com/question/c3061a356190786454.htmlDui象0 V=-0.2,w=-1 4.仿真Jie果 在本节中,进行了动力学仿真。举两例Miao述机器人系统的控制和控制影响: (1).Dong态模拟系统。控制机器人 的动力学系统研Jiu发现,(图二)约25 厘米超过5了厘米,Mei有控制。此外, 其它关节角在(图2)漂Yi快得多,这 将很可能引起关节角的破损。Suo有的 这些也将增加系统控制难度。因为其 Ling活的振动。因为不会改变位移,我 们不考Lv阻尼结构的模型。 (2).仿真是利用反Kui线性控制 转矩的,其目的是为了控制旋转De操 纵程度而已。整个系统最初的速率通过(17) He(18)进行计算。研究发现, 系统的动态响应 Hen好。 5.结论 影响系统动力的动Li学模型, 拉格朗日 公式对柔性双臂空间Ji器人进行了推导。一个 算法对初始条件的Que定做了仿真分析。基于模 拟技术得出结论。 Shou先, 捕捉对象与一个特定的速度对系统动力学影Xiang效果明显的, 振动结构的链接会影响机器人的位Zhi精度的灵活性。因此,研究空间机器人捕捉对象,Dui该漂移影响必须考虑阻尼和构造模型。此外,同样Zhong要的是,要确定压力影响条件。 其次,一Ge控制算法,其目的是为了稳定整个系统的正确尺寸She计与实现。仿真结果将关节角和机械手迅速送到稳Ding状态。但没有明确的弹性振动控制。最后,对象成Gong抓获。 参考文献:  S. 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外文翻译 外文资料: Robots First, I explain the background robots, robot technology development. It should be said it is a common scientific and technological development of a comprehensive results, for the socio-economic development of a significant impact on a science and technology. It attributed the development of all countries in the Second World War to strengthen the economic input on strengthening the country's economic development. But they also demand the development of the productive forces the inevitable result of human development itself is the inevitable result then with the development of humanity, people constantly discuss the natural process, in understanding and reconstructing the natural process, people need to be able to liberate a slave. So this is the slave people to be able to replace the complex and engaged in heavy manual labor, People do not realize right up to the world's understanding and transformation of this technology as well as people in the development process of an objective need. Robots are three stages of development, in other words, we are accustomed to regarding robots are divided into three categories. is a first-generation robots, also known as teach-type robot, it is through a computer, to control over one of a mechanical degrees of freedom Through teaching and information stored procedures, working hours to read out information, and then issued a directive so the robot can repeat according to the people at that time said the results show this kind of movement again, For example, the car spot welding robots, only to put this spot welding process, after teaching, and it is always a repeat of a work It has the external environment is no perception that the force manipulation of the size of the work piece there does not exist, welding 0S It does not know, then this fact from the first generation robot, it will exist this shortcoming, it in the 20th century, the late 1970s, people started to study the second-generation robot, called Robot with the feeling that This feeling with the robot is similar in function of a certain feeling, for instance, force and touch, slipping, visual, hearing and who is analogous to that with all kinds of feelings, say in a robot grasping objects, In fact, it can be the size of feeling out, it can through visual, to be able to feel and identify its shape, size, color Grasping an egg, it adopted a acumen, aware of its power and the size of the slide. Third-generation robots, we were a robotics ideal pursued by the most advanced stage, called intelligent robots, So long as tell it what to do, not how to tell it to do, it will be able to complete the campaign, thinking and perception of this man-machine communication function and function Well, this current development or relative is in a smart part of the concept and meaning But the real significance of the integrity of this intelligent robot did not actually exist, but as we continued the development of science and technology, the concept of intelligent increasingly rich, it grows ever wider connotations. Now, I would like to briefly outline some of the industrial robot situation. So far, the industrial robot is the most mature and widely used category of a robot, now the world's total sales of 1.1 million Taiwan, which is the 1999 statistics, however, 1.1 million in Taiwan have been using the equipment is 75 million, this volume is not small. Overall, the Japanese industrial robots in this one, is the first of the robots to become the Kingdom, the United States have developed rapidly. Newly installed in several areas of Taiwan, which already exceeds Japan, China has only just begun to enter the stage of industrialization, has developed a variety of industrial robot prototype and small batch has been used in production. Spot welding robot is the auto production line, improve production efficiency and raise the quality of welding car, reduce the labor intensity of a robot. It is characterized by two pairs of robots for spot welding of steel plate, bearing a great need for the welding tongs, general in dozens of kilograms or more, then its speed in meters per second a 5-2 meter of such high-speed movement. So it is generally five to six degrees of freedom, load 30 to 120 kilograms, the great space, probably expected that the work of a spherical space, a high velocity, the concept of freedom, that is to say, Movement is relatively independent of the number of components, the equivalent of our body, waist is a rotary degree of freedom We have to be able to hold his arm, Arm can be bent, then this three degrees of freedom, Meanwhile there is a wrist posture adjustment to the use of the three autonomy, the general robot has six degrees of freedom. We will be able to space the three locations, three postures, the robot fully achieved, and of course we have less than six degrees of freedom. Have more than six degrees of freedom robot, in different occasions the need to configure. The second category of service robots, with the development of industrialization, especially in the past decade, Robot development in the areas of application are continuously expanding, and now a very important characteristic, as we all know, Robot has gradually shifted from manufacturing to non-manufacturing and service industries, we are talking about the car manufacturer belonging to the manufacturing industry, However, the services sector including cleaning, refueling, rescue, rescue, relief, etc. These belong to the non-manufacturing industries and service industries, so here is compared with the industrial robot, it is a very important difference. It is primarily a mobile platform, it can move to sports, there are some arms operate, also installed some as a force sensor and visual sensors, ultrasonic ranging sensors, etc. It’s surrounding environment for the conduct of identification, to determine its campaign to complete some work, this is service robot’s one of the basic characteristics. For example, domestic robot is mainly embodied in the example of some of the carpets and flooring it to the regular cleaning and vacuuming. The robot it is very meaningful, it has sensors, it can furniture and people can identify, It automatically according to a law put to the ground under the road all cleaned up. This is also the home of some robot performance. The medical robots, nearly five years of relatively rapid development of new application areas. If people in the course of an operation, doctors surgery, is a fatigue, and the other manually operated accuracy is limited. Some universities in Germany, which, facing the spine, lumbar disc disease, the identification, can automatically use the robot-aided positioning, operation and surgery Like the United States have been more than 1,000 cases of human eyeball robot surgery, the robot, also including remote-controlled approach, the right of such gastrointestinal surgery, we see on the television inside. a manipulator, about the thickness fingers such a manipulator, inserted through the abdominal viscera, people on the screen operating the machines hand, it also used the method of laser lesion laser treatment, this is the case, people would not have a very big damage to the human body. In reality, this right as a human liberation is a very good robots, medical robots it is very complex, while it is fully automated to complete all the work, there are difficulties, and generally are people to participate. This is America, the development of such a surgery Lin Bai an example, through the screen, through a remote control operator to control another manipulator, through the realization of the right abdominal surgery A few years ago our country the exhibition, the United States has been successful in achieving the right to the heart valve surgery and bypass surgery. This robot has in the area, caused a great sensation, but also, AESOP's surgical robot, In fact, it through some equipment to some of the lesions inspections, through a manipulator can be achieved on some parts of the operation Also including remotely operated manipulator, and many doctors are able to participate in the robot under surgery Robot doctor to include doctors with pliers, tweezers or a knife to replace the nurses, while lighting automatically to the doctor's movements linked, the doctor hands off, lighting went off, This is very good, a doctor's assistant. Robot is mankind's right-hand man; friendly coexistence can be a reliable friend. In future, we will see and there will be a robot space inside, as a mutual aide and friend. Robots will create the jobs issue. We believe that there would not be a Yi文资料: 机器人 首先我介绍一下Ji器人产生的背景,机器人技术的发展,它应该说是Yi个科学技术发展共同的一个综合性的结果,同时,Wei社会经济发展产生了一个重大影响的一门科学技术,Ta的发展归功于在第二次世界大战中各国加强了经济De投入,就加强了本国的经济的发展。另一方面它也Shi生产力发展的需求的必然结果,也是人类自身发展De必然结果,那么随着人类的发展,人们在不断探讨Zi然过程中,在认识和改造自然过程中,需要能够解Fang人的一种奴隶。那么这种奴隶就是代替人们去能够Cong事复杂和繁重的体力劳动,实现人们对不可达世界De认识和改造,这也是人们在科技发展过程中的一个Ke观需要。 机器人有三个发展阶段,那么也Jiu是说,我们习惯于把机器人分https://www.wanmeila.com/question/c3061a356190786454.html成三类,一种是第一Dai机器人,那么也叫示教再现型机器人,它是通过一Ge计算机,来控制一个多自由度的一个机械,通过示Jiao存储程序和信息,工作时把信息读取出来,然后发Chu指令,这样的话机器人可以重复的根据人当时示教De结果,再现出这种动作,比方说汽车的点焊机器人,Ta只要把这个点焊的过程示教完以后,它总是重复这Yang一种工作,它对于外界的环境没有感知,这个力操Zuo力的大小,这个工件存在不存在,焊的好与坏,它Bing不知道,那么实际上这种从第一代机器人,也就存Zai它这种缺陷,因此,在20世纪70年代后期,人Men开始研究第二代机器人,叫带感觉的机器人,这种Dai感觉的机器人是类似人在某种功能的感觉,比如说Li觉、触觉、滑觉、视觉、听觉和人进行相类比,有Liao各种各样的感觉,比方说在机器人抓一个物体的时Hou,它实际上力的大小能感觉出来,它能够通过视觉,Neng够去感受和识别它的形状、大小、颜色。抓一个鸡Dan,它能通过一个触觉,知道它的力的大小和滑动的Qing况。第三代机器人,也是我们机器人学中一个理想De所追求的最高级的阶段,叫智能机器人,那么只要Gao诉它做什么,不用告诉它怎么去做,它就能完成运Dong,感知思维和人机通讯的这种功能和机能,那么这Ge目前的发展还是相对的只是在局部有这种智能的概Nian和含义,但真正完整意义的这种智能机器人实际上Bing没有存在,而只是随着我们不断的科学技术的发展,Zhi能的概念越来越丰富,它内涵越来越宽。 Xia边我简单介绍一下工业机器人的一些情况。到目前Wei止,工业机器人是最 成熟,应用最广泛的Yi类机器人,世界总量目前已经销售110万台,这Shi1999年的统计,但这110万台在已经进行装Bei使用的是75万台,这个量也是不小的。总体情况Kan,日本在工业机器人这一块,是首位的,成为机器Ren的王国,美国发展也很迅速,目前在新安装的台数Fang面,已经超过了日本,中国刚开始进入产业化的阶Duan,已经研制出多种工业机器人样机,已有小批量在Sheng产中使用。 点焊机器人主要是针对汽车生Chan线,提高生产效率,提高汽车焊接的质量,降低工Ren的劳动强度的一种机器人。它的特点是通过机器人Dui两个钢板进行点焊的时候,需要承载一个很大的焊Qian,一般在几十公斤以上,那么它的速度要求在每秒Zhong一米五到两米这样的高速运动,所以它一般来说有Wu到六个自由度,负载三十到一百二十公斤,工作的Kong间很大,大概有两米,这样一个球形的工作空间,Yun动速度也很高,那么自由度的概念,就是说,是相https://www.wanmeila.com/question/c3061a356190786454.htmlDui独立运动的部件的个数,就相当于我们人体,腰是Yi个回转的自由度,我们大臂可以抬起来,小臂可以Wan曲,那么这就三个自由度,同时腕部还有一个调整Zi态来使用的三个自由度,所以一般的机器人有六个Zi由度,就能把空间的三个位置,三个姿态,机器人Wan全实现,当然也有小于六个自由度的,也有多于六Ge自由度的机器人,只是在不同的需要场合来配置。 Di二类是服务机器人,随着工业化的发展,尤其近十Nian以来,机器人的发展的应用领域在不断拓宽,目前Yi个很重要的特征,大家都知道,机器人已经从制造Ye逐渐转向了非制造业和服务行业,刚才谈的汽车制Zao属于是制造业,但服务行业包括清洁、加油、救护、Qiang险、救灾这些等等,都属于非制造行业和服务行业,Na么这里边跟工业机器人相比,它有一个很重要的不Tong,它主要是一个移动平台,它能够移动、去运动,Shang面有一些手臂进行操作,同时还装有一些像力觉传Gan器和视觉传感器、超声测距传感器等等。它对周边De环境进行识别,来判断它的运动,完成某种工作,Zhe是服务机器人的基本的一个特点。 例如,Jia务机器人主要体现在像一些对地毯和地板定期的它Neng够进行清扫和吸尘,它这个机器人很有意思,它有Chuan感器,它能够把家具和人能识别出来,它自动的按Zhao一种规律,能根据路径把地面全部的清扫干净,这Ye是家务中一些机器人的表现。 那么医疗机Qi人,是近五年来发展比较迅速的一个新的应用领域。Ru果人手术的时候,医生来手术,一个是疲劳,另一Ge人手操作的精度还是有限的。在德国一些大学里面,Mian向人的脊椎,如腰间盘突出这种病,进行识别以后,Neng够自 动地用机器人来辅助进行定位,进行Cao作和手术。像美国已经有一千多例机器人对人眼球Jin行手术,这样的机器人,还包括通过遥控操作的办Fa,实现对人的胃肠这种手术,大家在电视里边看到,Yi个机械手,大概有手指这样粗细的一个机械手,通Guo插入腹脏以后,人在屏幕上操作这个机器手,同时Dui它用激光的方法对病灶进行激光的治疗,这样的话,Ren就不用很大幅度地破坏人的身体,这实际对人的一Zhong解放,是非常好一种机器人,医疗机器人它也很复Za,一方面它完全自动去完成各种工作,是有困难的,Yi般来说都是人来参与,这是美国开发的一个林白手Shu这样一个例子,人通过在屏幕上,通过一个遥控操Zuo手来控制另一个机械手,实现通过对人的腹腔进行Shou术,前几年我们国家展览会上,美国已经成功的实Xian了对人的心脏瓣膜的手术和搭桥手术,这已经在机https://www.wanmeila.com/question/c3061a356190786454.htmlQi人领域中,引起了很大的轰动,还包括,AESOPDe这种外科手术机器人,它实际上通过一些仪器能够Dui人的一些病变进行检查,通过一个机械手就能够实Xian对人的某些部位进行手术,还包括遥操作机械手,Yi及多个医生可以在机器人共同参与下进行手术,包Kuo机器人给大夫医生拿钳子、镊子或刀子来代替护士De工作,同时把照明能够自动的给医生的动作联系起Lai,医生的手到哪儿,照明就去哪儿,这样非常好的,Yi个医生的助手。 机器人是人类的得力助手,Neng友好相处的可靠朋友,将来我们会看到人和机器人Hui存在一个空间里边,成为一个互相的助手和朋友。Ji器人会不会产生饭碗的问题。我们相信不会出现“Ji器人上岗,工人下岗”的局面,因为人们随着社会De发展,实际上把人们从繁重的体力和危险的环境中Jie放出来,使人们有更好的岗位去工作,去创造更好De精神财富和文化财富。
Isaac Asimov's "Three Laws of Robotics" Zhu名科普作家阿西莫夫的机器人三定律 1.A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 2.A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. 3.A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Robotics is the science and technology and application of robots. Stories of artificial helpers and attempts to create them has a long history and is the basis of much science fiction. Robots are generally used to help with jobs that are too dirty or boring for most human beings. The first prgrammable humanoid robot was about 1206 AD. We can make a robot to look like almost anything we want. The most fantasized about are ones that have a humanoid appearance. Think of a repetative task and generally there is probably one on th market that can do what you want. Remember Rosey the robot on The Jetsons, or the robot on Lost in Space. We have come a long way, but we aren't quite that far yet. It is only a matter of time. There are already robots that can do simple tasks like cleaning the floor, or doing the laundry. But these won't be ready for the public until about the year 2010. The cost of the robots is another matter. The robot is based around the structure, which is like the skeleton of the human body. It is the main support system. Next, you have the actuatorsor "muscles" of the robot. This is quite complex, and I won't go into now. Manipulators are the way an object is manipulated. This generally is done by grippers, or effectors. Then there is locomotion to worry about. Do you have a flat surface that it will work on? Then it will probably be a rolling robot. It can be two wheels, four wheels, or on tracks. If there are stairs, or uneven terrain the problem becomes more complex. Walking is difficult to solve, especially if you compare it to how a human walks. If The robot has locomotion, I am assuming it is going from point A to point B. Does it need memory to get to point A and memory to get to point B? It will probably need something similar to radar to be used for crash avoidance. Scientists and researchers are constantly trying to hone the robot into something better. Robots make our life a lot easier. They are in every facet of our life. The computer, garage door opener, unmanned reconnaissance planes, satellites, lawn mowers, a GPS in our car. These are all of robots we we use every day and probably don't think about it. As you can tell, robots can get very complex very quickly. The fancier you make it, the more compkex and expensive it becomes. You are trying to tell an inanimate object how to do something halfway human, and that is complex. 2 People who go all Lou Dobbs about robots. People say things like: All robots look alike. Robots should speak English. Robots are taking all the jobs. Robots don't pay enough taxes. Robots reproduce like bunnies. I don't want my child playing with a robot, or goodness gracious, marrying a robot. An acquaintance of mine, who discriminates against robots, but never actually met one, received a Roomba for Christmas "I pushed its power button," she said. "It was so cute when it sounded the "charge," and scurried across the floor gobbling up dust bunnies. I love Roomba," she said. "But I still don't like robots." It is typical to think that your robot is somehow different from other robots. Those other robots can not be trusted. It may take another generation, one where our children are raised amongst robots, for them to gain acceptance. Like the washing machine and the automobile, robots are part of our future. It is true that robots can be hard to tell apart. I remember Sarah Connor in Terminator II. She damn near wet her pants when a series 800-Model 101 showed up, a few years after she'd sent its twin to the scrap heap. Given a little time, however, she got acquainted with the big, muscle-bound machine. She fantasized about keeping him on as dad and husband. After all, he got along well with the boy, was a good provider, and would stop at nothing to protect her family. Although robots are loyal and dependable, they do screw up once in a while. I'm thinking of HAL in 2001, A Space Odyssey. He definitely made a mistake of judgment. I still think he deserved a second chance? For every HAL, there are dozens of R2-D2's and 3CPO's. And that cute little WALL-E. Occasionally, there is a bad egg, like ED-209 in RoboCop. Or the Battle Droids in Star Wars. But are they worse than rottweilers and pit bulls? Surely, some of them can be rehabilitated, and make good pets. From an economic point of view, you can't beat robots. They work day and night. They rarely call in sick. They add to the nation's GDP, and don't require pensions or health care. They are terrific with numbers and rarely have math anxiety. RoboDoc performs delicate surgeries 24/7 and he never gets the shakes. But, you ask, "What if they go into politics?" Will they impose their culture, their language, and their way of life on us? Forget about it. No one can resist Big Macs, vacations to Disneyland, and shopping at Walmart. This is America.. Face it, robots are here to stay. They are willing to do ANYTHING. They make great maids and gardeners, sweepers and scrubbers, mowers and choppers. There are robots that care for the elderly, wash their dirty bottoms and soon perhaps, play Yahtzee with them. There are robots that imitate pets yet don't require walks nor litter boxes. Even robots that'll go the fridge, grab a cold beer, and bring it to you. If it's eager to watch the Super Bowl, and play Wii Tennis, you got yourself a great roommate. As far as intermarriage with a robot, didn't they try that in The Stepford Wives? Maybe it was just too soon. 3 Most of us are still of of the mindset that robotics is something that is rather futuristic. We still may have pictures in our head of humanoid robots, flailing their arms and either attacking the Earth from other planets or perhaps protecting us in some way or another. The fact of the matter is, humanoid robots are still very much futuristic but much of the future of robots is already in existence today. Robots are used in a number of different settings that you might find rather interesting. Here is a little bit about the future of robotics and the fact that much of it is already in existence with what we are doing now. One of the ways in which robots are most often used is in an industrial setting. The automotive industry, for example, makes use of robots on their assembly lines to do a number of different tasks. Unfortunately, this has put many individuals out of a job because the robot was able to do what they used to do on the assembly line more efficiently. Not only that, once the robot is put into place they are able to take care of these repetitive tasks, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. One of the ways in which robotics is used on a regular basis is in spot welding. Although this used to require a human touch, much of the welding that is now done by robots is so accurate and precise that a human could not possibly take care of it in that way. Many times, this welding needs to be done in an assembly line environment so the same simple task is done over and over again. It will be difficult for anybody to improve on what is already existing in these robotics unless they make them less apt to have difficulties from breaking down. Robots are also able to help us to get out of dangerous situations in many cases. A good example of this is spring painting. Humans used to have to take care of spray painting in the automotive industry and other industrial settings. This put them at risk because they were constantly being exposed to dangerous chemicals, even if they wore protective clothing. A robot is not only able to be in these rooms without having to worry about health concerns, they are able to do the painting more evenly and accurately than their human counterparts. Finally, robotics are often used in the development and building of computer chips. These chips are often too small for humans to work on themselves so if or not for the robotics that are put to use in these factories, much of the computer science that we have today would not be in existence. Although they will continue to improve on this and other things in the robotics industry, the fact of the matter is that the modern-day use of robotics is already futuristic. 4 Developing a humanoid robot has long since captured the human imagination and will be the continued focus in the future of robotics. Scientists say there are two obstacles to creating a robot with human or super-human intelligence: vision and processing sensory information. "It is almost impossible to predict when machines will become as clever as humans," admits Ronald Arkin, a robotics expert at the Mobile Robot Laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia. "Although work in magnetic resonance imaging holds great promise, researchers can now watch areas of the brain light up as individuals carry out specific mental tasks. When we have that knowledge, we can pass it on to computers." Motor vehicle production is one area where robotics automation is already being used. Yet imagine a world where we can read, have a glass of wine, talk freely on our cell phones or take a nap while our personal automobile drives itself from our workplace to our doorstep. Or perhaps we'll abandon the wheeled prototypes altogether and kick back in our personal flying car like numerous science fiction films predict. So how far are we from such a future? Well, in 2007, the US Defense Advanced Research Project Agency had 83 robotic system vehicles driving through a 60-mile urban course, navigating around other vehicles, pedestrians and obstacles; all without incident. Just three years ago, robotic vehicles couldn't even drive straight across the wide-open desert without crashing. "The robotics industry is developing in much the same way the computer business did thirty years ago," Microsoft founder Bill Gates observed. So what is in store for the future of robotics in the workplace? The US military is one of the biggest donators to robotic research, as they hope to replace human lives with robotics automation, reducing our casualties in war. Robots are already completing reconnaissance missions, disassembling explosives and firing on enemy combatants. Military chiefs are aiming to make a third of all ground vehicles driver-less by 2015. Researchers are also looking at robots similar to those featured in Isaac Asimov's "I Robot" that cooperate together in a swarm-like way to complete complex tasks. Just the size of a small bug, these insect swarms look unassuming but are capable of jamming communication lines, gathering intelligence and firing at enemy combatants. The future of robotics is taking aim at the rapidly aging population, with the end goal of providing for the elderly in places like the US which will see 97 million baby boomers in need of care or in Japan, where 22% of the population is over 65. Currently $1 billion is spent each year researching how autonomous robots can care for the elderly. Secom's "My Spoon" robot, for instance, can feed disabled people by breaking up food into chewable morsels and spooning it into their mouths. "Paro," another Japanese invention, looks like a baby seal and responds to the affection of lonely elderly patients, while also monitoring their heart rate and health symptoms.
my name is ××. I always have a dream to own a robot in named Superman. It will be a product of AI(artificial intelligence) and it can do so many things for me, including helping me with all of my housework, especially cleaning the floor which i hate to do most. It could cook the meals anytime for my family. It could send me to school and fetch me from school instead of my parents. added up to all, it could also be my teachers, teaching me English and Math! What an assume robot it will be! With the breakthrough of technology, i strongly believe that my dream will come true one day.
robot 英[ˈrəʊbɒt] Mei[ˈroʊbɑ:t] n. Ji器人; 遥控装置; 自动机; 机械呆板的人; [Li句]They have docked a robot module alongside the orbiting space station Ta们已经将一个自动操作舱与沿轨道运行的空间站并Xing对接上了。 [其他] 复数：robots