应县木塔:中国古代建筑抗震能力的杰Chu代表 山西应县佛宫寺释迦塔(应县木塔)Shi中国古代传统建筑杰出抗震能力的集中代表。这座Mu塔是当今世界现存最高的木结构建筑,竣工于1056Nian,处于大同盆地地震带上。木塔建成200多年即Zao受大震,余震连续7天,木塔附近的房屋全部倒塌,Er木塔岿然不动;在此后的近千年中,木塔经历了多Ci大地震的考验而安然无恙。在战乱之际,木塔还承Shou过200余发炮弹的轰击,亦无大损。木塔之所以You如此杰出的抗震能力,在于前述诸多抗震技法的综He和提高:木塔平面是规则的正八角形,利于抵抗地Zhen波产生的扭曲力;木塔高达4.4米的砖石基座坚Shi、稳定,形成一个“浮筏”,承载着全塔的重量(Yue1300吨);木塔内梁与柱的连接完全通过斗栱Wan成,各种构件则通过榫卯连接,全塔的主要构件不Yong一钉一铆,这种连接形式类似于半固结半活铰的状Tai,能承受较大的弯矩;构架水平分层,在地震波中De垂直冲击波攻击下,可以通过“弹跳”的方式消解Ju大的破坏能量;构架的整体性有力地抵抗旋转波,Suo有的柱子都用顶部的梁枋连结成一个筒形的框架,Bao证了构架的稳定性;柱子之间砌筑有厚实的墙体,Lao牢地“抱”住各柱子,增加了构架的整体性,而且Zhe些墙体能作为剪力墙发挥作用;立柱侧脚、平面逐Ceng缩小,有效地降低了塔的重心,并使整体结构重心Xiang内倾斜,增强了塔的稳定性,这样既使塔身形成美Li的曲线,又能把水平的地震冲击力分解成垂直方向De压力;周边有一圈柱廊,各圈柱廊被水平构件连接Cheng一个刚中带柔的整体;为了加固结构框架,在八边Xing木塔的四个斜向应面上,自上而下采用了剪刀撑做Fa。 整座木塔表现出结构、技术与艺术形象De高度和谐,表里如一,这是中国古代木结构建筑,Ye是我们中华民族的“传统美德”之一。在近千年前Wo们的祖先就能建造出如此庄严美丽而坚固耐久的建Zhu,充分显示出当时的匠人对数学、力学、材料学、Jie构学的研究已经相当深入,而且对地震的破坏机理Yi有了相当的了解,抗震经验已积累到了很高的水平,Ji令人惊奇,也令人自豪。(来源:中国国家地理杂Zhi) 英文的应县木塔的简介,一份山西省的Ying文简介 The county should allay Jiada the Fogong Temple in Shanxi Province in the northwest county should Buddhist Temple Temple, commonly known as Yingxian Wooden Tower. Built in Liao - Ning 2002 (Y ear 1056), Jinmengchang six years (Y ear 1195) Upgrading completed. China is the most ancient existing maximum configuration of a wooden tower construction, and only a wooden structure pavilion-style tower, as the nation's key units to be protected. Mu塔at Temple Shanmen north-south axis line between the Basilica and, as
The county should allay Jiada the Fogong Temple in Shanxi Province in the northwest county should Buddhist Temple Temple, commonly known as Yingxian Wooden Tower. Built in Liao - Ning 2002 (Year 1056), Jinmengchang six years (Year 1195) Upgrading completed. China is the most ancient existing maximum configuration of a wooden tower construction, and only a wooden structure pavilion-style tower, as the nation's key units to be protected. Mu塔at Temple Shanmen north-south axis line between the Basilica and, as "the former towerHou殿" layout. Tower construction in the LMH four meters high, the tower high 67.31 meters, bottom diameter of 30.27 meters, was octagonal-shaped plane. The first layer Facade Tongyan, the above floors were Dandan, a total of five six canopies, trapped between layers of a dark, in fact, Chinese Academy. As a result of bottom Tong Yan and corridors, so look for the six-storey tower in the eaves of the house. Upper floors are used inside and outside twiceMu柱support each floor, there are 24 pillars, there are eight,Mu柱between the use of a lot of diagonal bracing, beam, Fang and short columns, the composition of the complex beam different directions -Mu架. It was calculated, the entireMu塔sharing Korean pine wood 3,000 cubic meters, about more than 2,600 tons heavy, the overall proportion of appropriate, the magnificent architecture, art sophistication, shape prudent solemn.
应县佛宫寺释迦塔位于山西应县城内西Bei佛宫寺内，俗称应县木塔。建于辽清宁二年（公元1056Nian），金明昌六年（公元1195年）增修完毕。是Wo国现存最高最古的一座木构塔式建筑，也是唯一一Zuo木结构楼阁式塔，为全国重点文物保护单位。 Mu塔位于寺南北中轴线上的山门与大殿之间，属于“Qian塔后殿”的布局。塔建造在四米高的台基上，塔高67.31Mi，底层直径30.27米，呈平面八角形。第一层Li面重檐，以上各层均为单檐，共五层六檐，各层间Jia设暗层，实为九层。因底层为重檐并有回廊，故塔De外观为六层屋檐。各层均用内、外两圈木柱支撑，Mei层外有24根柱子，内有八根，木柱之间使用了许Duo斜撑、梁、枋和短柱，组成不同方向的复梁式木架。You人计算，整个木塔共用红松木料3000立方，约2600Duo吨重，整体比例适当，建筑宏伟，艺术精巧，外形Wen重庄严。 该塔身底层南北各开一门，二层Yi上周设平座栏杆，每层装有木质楼梯，游人逐级攀Deng，可达顶端。二至五层每层有四门，均设木隔扇，Guang线充足，出门凭栏远眺，恒岳如屏，桑干似带，尽Shou眼底，心旷神怡。塔内各层均塑佛像。一层为释迦Mou尼，高11米，面目端庄，神态怡然，顶部有精美Hua丽的藻井，内槽墙壁上画有六幅如来佛像，门洞两Ce壁上也绘有金刚、天王、弟子等，壁画色泽鲜艳，Ren物栩栩如生。二层坛座方形，上塑一佛二菩萨和二Xie侍。三层坛座八角形，上塑四方佛。四层塑佛和阿Nan、迦叶、文殊、普贤像。五层塑毗卢舍那如来佛和Ren大菩萨。各佛像雕塑精细，各具情态，有较高的艺Shu价值。 塔顶作八角攒尖式，上立铁刹，制Zuo精美，与塔协调，更使木塔宏伟壮观。塔每层檐下Zhuang有风铃，微风吹动，叮咚作响，十分悦耳。
Buddhist Temple Temple should be released Jiata County in Shanxi Province, the county seat should be within the Northwest Shuozhou Temple Buddha Temple, commonly known as the Ying County Wooden Pagoda. Years built in the Liao Ning Qing (AD 1056), Jin Mingchang six years (AD 1195) upgrading is completed. Is the highest and most ancient of the existing wooden tower of a building, a wooden structure is the only pavilion-style tower, a national key cultural relics protection units. Wooden Pagoda Temple is located in north-south axis between the gate and the main hall, a "tower before the apse," the layout. Four-meter high tower built in the platform, the tower height 67.31 m, the bottom diameter of 30.27 meters, was flat octagonal. Elevation first floor eaves, above the layers are Dan Yan, a total of five six canopies, and concealed layer sandwiched between layers, in fact, nine. Because the underlying and a corridor for the eaves, so the appearance of the six tower roof. Layers are used inside and outside the wooden supports twice, each with 24 columns outside, there are eight, between the use of a number of wooden pillars bracing, beams, Fang and columns to form the complex in different directions wooden beam . It has been estimated, the common pine wood pagoda 3,000 cubic meters, about more than 2600 tons heavy, the overall proportion of appropriate magnificent architecture, art compact, stable form solemn. North and South, to open the bottom of the tower a second floor flat located above the seat railing week, each equipped with wooden stairs, visitors climb step by step up to the top. Two to five each have four, located wooden partition board, adequate light, lean on a railing overlooking out, Hang Yue such as the screen, like with a dry sauna, panoramic view, relaxed and happy. Tower floors are plastic statues. One for the Buddha, 11 meters high, dignified face, an air of contented, beautiful ornate top of the caisson, the tank walls painted six Buddha images, the walls are painted with openings on both sides of King Kong, King, a disciple and so on, murals, bright color, lifelike characters. Block two-story square altar, a Buddha and two Bodhisattvas on the plastic and two retinues. Three-seat octagonal altar, on the plastic square Buddha. Ah Nuo Buddha and four plastic, Kasyapa, Monju, Fugen like. Five plastic border Losana Buddha Buddha and the NPC. Fine sculpture of the Buddha, each with modality, have high artistic value. For the octagonal tower save point type, on the stand iron brake, beautifully produced, with the tower coordination, more so magnificent pagoda. Tower with wind chimes on each floor eaves, breeze blowing, ding-dong sound, very sweet.